# Mathematician of the Month – Fibonacci

I’m doing a series with my family where we learn about an important figure every month and learn about their life and theories. I got stuck with the short end of the straw, which obviously means I got stuck with Math. While all my moaning and groaning and whining fell on deaf ears, I actually found that I was enjoying myself. I thought I’d document little short stories here just in case some of you find it interesting as well.

Fibonacci c. 1170 – 1240

This month’s mathematician is a handsome young Italian man called Leonardo de Pisa (the same place the famous Leaning Tower is from) who was born to a rich merchant who would take the young boy along during his travels to one of his posts in Algeria. Leonardo, who went by his nickname of Fibonacci by then, started showing a fascination towards the Hindu-Arabic numeral system. Not having to work, owing to his riches, Fibonacci decided to travel around the world to discover math in different cultures. His travels took him to many Arabic and Mediterranean countries where he found that the Hindu-Arabic numerals were simpler and more efficient than the Roman numerals he was taught.

All of his learning and travel led him to write the famous Liber Abaci, spreading word on the new numeral system he had picked up. The book was first published 800 years ago and was full of mathematical puzzles. One of the most famous puzzles was –

If you put a male and a female rabbit in an enclosed space, how many rabbits will you have at the end of a year?

The answer can be found using a mathematical model – a pattern that has now come to be called the Fibonacci sequence.

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, …

What’s fascinating about the sequence is that the numbers appear everywhere in nature. If you could the bumps on pineapples and pine-cones, the family tree of cows etc. It can also be found in renaissance paintings, in the Pyramids of Giza and many other architectural wonders

# STEM Apps for Kids

STEM education is seen as essential for kids as it gives them the foundation to explore a variety of careers. While these careers can be directly related to STEM, there are also those that require the skills one develops while learning these subjects. STEM subjects are Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. These subjects train students in skills like problem solving and critical thinking. So it is not necessary that only students interested in becoming scientists and engineers should get acquainted with STEM. Even those who find these subjects dreary can rediscover the subjects in a whole new light with apps that deliver the concepts without taking the skills and fun out of them.

Dibble Dash: In penguin games like this one, kids can practice their math skills like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Math Bingo: Kids can test their math know-how with this game and play through three levels. Questions are related to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Science360: Older kids will benefit from the latest news, spectacular images and videos that are streamed on this app related to science and engineering.

Bridge Constructor: If building bridges is a passion, this app gives plenty of opportunities for that as it allows kids to choose materials and conduct stress tests.

Cat Physics: In this fun game, kids learn about underlying concepts of physicswhile the ball is passed from one cat to another, while simultaneously getting past obstacles.

Aero: With this app, kids will learn about aerodynamics as they adjust the wings of an albatross to make it fly and simultaneously learn about flight techniques.

Monster Physics: Kids can have fun inventing. Another building app, this one lets you build planes and rockets, and once they are built, kids can operate them.

The Chemical Touch: In this exciting app, kids can learn about the periodic table and the chemical properties of elements.

Spacecraft 3D: As the name suggests, the app helps kids understand space and learn about the earth and solar system.

Bobo Explores Light: Children can learn about scientific concepts like lasers, lightning and bioluminescence under the tutelage of a robot.

When STEM is introduced to kids in an engaging way and they learn about the difference these concepts help make to the quality of life, they will become more receptive to learning and practicing these skills.

# Subtraction game ideas to teach the concepts of ‘difference’ and ‘take away’

Before I start, I’d like to apologize for my blog silence. I tried to schedule as many posts as I could but some of them got lost in the maze that is the internet. I was away on vacation with the family to England (Photos up soon I promise!). What I have learnt in the past few weeks is that clichés are clichés for a reason. You know when people say they need a vacation to recover from a vacation? Oh boy is it true! Meanwhile, I have been able to write this post on Math because homeschooling doesn’t have terms. It’s an ongoing process! :) Hope you are all well. I will catch up with all your blogs soon!

Experiencing difficulty in learning subtraction is a very common problem early in schools because students fail to move beyond the not-so-foolproof counting strategies of subtraction taught at kindergarten level. A simple solution lies in explaining the concept of subtraction to kids as both ‘take away’ and ‘difference’, helping them to understand the concept clearly. ‘Difference’ can be explained as comparing two numbers while ‘taking away’ can be explained as ‘removing numbers from a larger series of numbers’. M&M candies, cookies, chocolate squares, buttons, cookies, Lego blocks, cheerios, and marshmallows have always been very efficient tools in teaching kids the ‘difference’ and ‘taking away’ concepts. However, when I am not time bound and the kids are eager to learn, I play a few subtraction games with them in order to help them master the concept.

Flip flop math explaining ‘difference’

I stumbled upon this cool subtraction game on Pinterest when I was researching for general math game ideas for my 2 1st graders at home. I improvised on the game suggested by The Teacher’s Cauldron and came up with my own! This is a subtraction game that will help them understand the idea of ‘difference’. You will need a fair collection of sea shells, card stock, plastic laces, glue, scissors, markers, and 2 large sheets of construction paper. Distribute the shells unevenly among the kids and make multiple teams of 2 children each. The idea is to compare the number of sea shells and make a flip flop craft out of their ‘analysis’. If two girls in a team got 6 and 1 shells respectively, they cut out two flip flop bases and write their names on them. Next, have them write the number of shells they got on the flip flop next to their name. Paste the flip flops on the large construction paper and write the ‘difference’ in the space between their flip flops. Follow the image and replace the names with the answers and the addition problems with the number of shells each girl/boy got. Make several such pairs of flip flops for each team. Help them make the straps with the plastic laces and their flip flop craft is ready to go on the soft board.

Burning game explaining ‘take away’

This is a magic math game for kids of 2nd grade. It’s a twist to regular boring games, but must only be tried with necessary precautions in place!

You will need a mix of 3 portions of lemon juice and 1 portion of water, cotton swabs, a candle, a matchbox, papers, and markers to play the subtraction game in the class. Write an addition problem, like in the image, on strips of construction paper.  The only thing that you need to do differently here is write the number that’s hidden under the orange paper with cotton swabs dipped in the lemon juice and water mix. Ask the kids to calculate the number by ‘taking away’ the first digit from the answer, ‘taking away’ 7 from 10 in this case.

Hold the paper over a lit candle for the missing number to gradually reveal itself! The kids will be thrilled to bits to see their prediction appear magically on the paper! Please make necessary precaution and follow safety rules in the class while lighting the candle and holding the paper over it.

# Kindergarten Math Games in the Kitchen

Photo Courtesy – Terren in Virginia

Trying to introduce young children to math usually leads to tears, tantrums and frustration. Trust me, I know. To begin with, no active three-year old wants to sit still and push paper; not when he’s wide awake and ready to play. So worksheets are out of the question right away. Besides, you want to build a positive relationship between your child and the Math Monster and forcing him to mug up math concepts isn’t going to help. So how do you help your kindergartener build a solid foundation in math?

You’ll find the answer in your kitchen. You read it right. Think about how often you measure, count, compare and estimate when you are cooking. Your kitchen is a storehouse of kindergarten math games to teach your little one the basics of counting, measuring and numbers. Here are a few games to get you started.

## Turn Cooking Time into Learning Time

### Eating the Zoo

#### Skills – Addition, subtraction, counting and estimation

If your child loves animal crackers, here’s the perfect kindergarten math game for him. Pretend that a plate is the zoo. Can you put 6 animals in the zoo? Oh no …one has escaped! (Your child eats a cracker.) How many animals does the zoo contain now? (He answers, “Five.”) Continue the game by adding or taking away until he’s full or tired, whichever is first. Your child will master his numbers in no time at all!

### Measuring Games

#### Skills – Measuring, estimation, comparison

Line up all your cups, spoons and other measuring equipment and have your child arrange them from biggest to smallest. You could also play a fun guessing game with a metric system scale – collect different kinds of food and ask your child to guess which one is the heaviest and confirm his answer by weighing it on the scale. Your child picks up foundational math skills with these simple kindergarten math games.

### Count and sort

#### Skills – Counting, sorting

Your kindergartener is new to the world of numbers – why not sharpen his counting skills with this simple kindergarten math game? All you need to do is place individual cereals in increasing order (up to ten) and have your child repeat the numbers after you. Here’s another easy math game that teaches sorting skills. Collect fruits in different colors (apples, oranges, lemons, etc.) and label baskets with the colors you have. Ask your child to sort the fruits according to color. You can play the same game with fruits in different sizes.

Want to raise a child who’s not scared of math? Give him plenty of math moments in the kitchen with these easy and fun kindergarten math games!

If you’re looking for more ways to make math less intimidating for your children, be sure to read my guest post about it over at Earnest Parenting! Don’t hesitate to leave me a comment about the things you do to get your child not to fear math. I would love to hear from you.